Hemodynamic monitoring is the repeated assessment of circulatory function over time. Perturbations in circulatory function are expected during physiologic stress such as exercise, sickness, trauma, pregnancy, physical and mental stress . Uncontrolled, these perturbations can lead to tissue degeneration, ultimately resulting in morbidity and mortality. As such, hemodynamic monitoring is a fundamental component of delivering safe anesthetic care. It is essential to note, however, that hemodynamic monitoring alone does not change anesthetic or surgical outcomes. To improve perioperative outcomes, hemodynamic monitoring must not only be of high quality, but the measurements must also be interpreted correctly, so that the anesthesiologist can intervene in an appropriate and timely fashion. Poor quality measurements or a misinterpretation of hemodynamic monitors will lead to incorrect therapeutic decisions resulting in adverse outcomes.